Kostanay region was founded in 1936. The region is located in the northern part of the Republic of Kazakhstan, mainly in the steppe and forest-steppe zone, within the Torgay and Trans-Ural Plateaus. On the territory of the region there are many lakes and rivers, mostly fresh. The main water artery of the river is Tobol. The climate of the region is sharply continental, with pronounced alternations of seasons.
The territory of the region is 196 000 square meters. km. (7.7% of the total area of Kazakhstan). The administrative-territorial division of the region is represented by 5 cities: Kostanay, Rudny, Lisakovsk, Zhitikara, Arkalyk, 16 rural areas, 13 urban-type settlements, 750 villages. The length of the territory from north to south is 750 and from west to east is 250-400 kilometers. The region is located within a geographic structure known as the Torgai trough. It includes 16 districts. The administrative center of the region is the city of Kostanay. Located on the river Tobol, founded in 1879.
Railway and air transport, highways connect the region with the cities of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the CIS. The network of roads with a hard surface connects all administrative centers with the regional one, most of the district centers have railway stations. The river network is rare. Within the region there are about 310 small rivers. In Kostanai oblast there are more than 5 thousand lakes.
The subsoil of the region is exceptionally rich in minerals, especially iron ore
The region has the most extensive grain crops in the republic. The subsoil of the region is rich in other minerals: brown coal, asbestos, refractory and brick clays, flux and cement limestone, glass sand, building stone and others. In the region there is a unique deposit of jade in Kazakhstan. Open 19 deposits of bauxite, 7 – gold, one – silver and nickel. Forest covered area of 217.5 thousand hectares, including 51.2 thousand hectares – natural plantations. In connection with the development of virgin lands, almost the entire area occupied by chernozems and chestnut soils is plowed up.
The operating length of public railways passing through the territory of the region is 1048 km.
Over one hundred nationalities and nationalities live on the territory of the region.
The region has a small Assembly of the Peoples of Kazakhstan, which unites 14 national cultural centers, communities and diasporas. The official language is Kazakh, along with which Russian is used. The history, culture of ancient peoples and contemporaries of our era are represented in the exposition of the Regional History and Local History Museum, in the fund of which there are more than 90,000 exhibits.
The fauna of terrestrial animals of the region includes 52 species of mammals, 267 permanently or temporarily inhabiting birds, 10 species of amphibians and reptiles, 24 species of fish live in water bodies. In the area of specially protected natural areas there is a state reserve – Naurzumsky. The total area of the reserve is 191381 hectares, of which the area covered with forest is 5772 hectares, the area occupied by reservoirs is 22354 hectares. 44 species of wild animals, 280 kinds of poultry, 10 species of fish, 687 plant species live on the territory of the state reserve. The presence of 6018 head of the main and rare animals and 35892 main and rare birds was recorded.
The territory of the Kostanay region covers 4 landscape zones: from the forest-steppe to the desert, it is distinguished by a great variety of flora and fauna.
Monuments of antiquity in the Kostanay region:
- Annovsky temple – The ruins of the Ann’s temple are in the Sarikol district of the Kostanay region.
- Bestamak necropolis – is located in the northern part of the Turgai trough at the very source of the Ubagan river, the right tributary of Tobol. A study of these objects showed that the burial ground of Bestamak was used by the ancient inhabitants of the Torgai trough during a large period of time from the Stone Age (Eneolithic) to the Middle Ages. This is one of the most famous archaeological sites of the Kostanay region. Last years Bestamak is included in the republican program “Cultural heritage”.
- Ekidin burial mounds – Yekidin ritual building is located in Amangeldinsky district of Kostanay region, not far from the village of Yekidin (formerly called Sarytogai) – these are the two most ancient structures of spherical shape made of wild stone that were built in the early period of the Iron Age epoch. The mounds of the Yekinda are an architectural monument of Northern Kazakhstan of the 7th – 9th centuries.
- Torgai geoglyphs are Torgai geoglyphs (geoglyphs are giant land drawings, which can only be seen from a great height), which form patterns in the form of swastikas, circles, squares and crosses. If the swastika, lines and embankments form a single ensemble, then the length of this geoglyph is 512 meters. To date, nine objects have been identified: the Ushtogai square, the Torgai swastika, the Ekidinsky cross, the Ashitaste crosses (two figures), the square, the ring and the two lines. Approximate age of the figures, according to the assumptions of archaeologists from 2 to 10 thousand years.